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sunnuntai 14. kesäkuuta 2009

Lukijakyssä: The 2007 IAAF Consensus Conference on Nutrition for Athletics

Urheiluvalmentajana haluaisin tietää onko sulla tietoa IAAF:n urheiluravitsemuskonferenssin suosituksista/ehdotuksista? Nämä konsensusjutut on toki aina hirveän varovaisia mutta kiinnostaisi kuitenki tietää.

Alla tiivistelmiä ko. konfenssin yhteydessä julkaistuista ravitsemusartikkeleista.

Nutrition for the sprinter.

Tipton KD, Jeukendrup AE, Hespel P; International Association of Athletics Federations.

School of Sport and Exercise Sciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TT, UK. k.d.tipton@bham.ac.uk

The primary roles for nutrition in sprints are for recovery from training and competition and influencing training adaptations. Sprint success is determined largely by the power-to-mass ratio, so sprinters aim to increase muscle mass and power. However, extra mass that does not increase power may be detrimental. Energy and protein intake are important for increasing muscle mass. If energy balance is maintained, increased mass and strength are possible on a wide range of protein intakes, so energy intake is crucial. Most sprinters likely consume ample protein. The quantity of energy and protein intake necessary for optimal training adaptations depends on the individual athlete and training demands; specific recommendations for all sprinters are, at best, useless, and are potentially harmful. However, if carbohydrate and fat intake are sufficient to maintain energy levels, then increased protein intake is unlikely to be detrimental. The type and timing of protein intake and nutrients ingested concurrently must be considered when designing optimal nutritional strategies for increasing muscle mass and power. On race day, athletes should avoid foods that result in gastrointestinal discomfort, dehydration or sluggishness. Several supplements potentially influence sprint training or performance. Beta-alanine and bicarbonate may be useful as buffering agents in longer sprints. Creatine may be efficacious for increasing muscle mass and strength and perhaps increasing intensity of repeat sprint performance during training.

Nutritional strategies to optimize training and racing in middle-distance athletes.

Stellingwerff T, Boit MK, Res PT; International Association of Athletics Federations.

Nestlé Research Center, Nestec Ltd., Lausanne, Switzerland. stellingwerff@rdls.nestle.com

Middle-distance athletes implement a dynamic continuum in training volume, duration, and intensity that utilizes all energy-producing pathways and muscle fibre types. At the centre of this periodized training regimen should be a periodized nutritional approach that takes into account acute and seasonal nutritional needs induced by specific training and competition loads. The majority of a middle-distance athlete's training and racing is dependant upon carbohydrate-derived energy provision. Thus, to support this training and racing intensity, a high carbohydrate intake should be targeted. The required energy expenditure throughout each training phase varies significantly, and thus the total energy intake should also vary accordingly to better maintain an ideal body composition. Optimizing acute recovery is highly dependant upon the immediate consumption of carbohydrate to maximize glycogen resynthesis rates. To optimize longer-term recovery, protein in conjunction with carbohydrate should be consumed. Supplementation of beta-alanine or sodium bicarbonate has been shown to augment intra- and extracellular buffering capacities, which may lead to a small performance increase. Future studies should aim to alter specific exercise (resistance vs. endurance) and/or nutrition stimuli and measure downstream effects at multiple levels that include gene and molecular signalling pathways, leading to muscle protein synthesis, that result in optimized phenotypic adaptation and performance.

Nutrition for distance events.

Burke LM, Millet G, Tarnopolsky MA; International Association of Athletics Federations.

Department of Sports Nutrition, Australian Institute of Sport, Belconnen, ACT 2616, Australia. louise.burke@ausport.gov.au

The goal of training is to prepare the distance athlete to perform at his or her best during major competitions. Whatever the event, nutrition plays a major role in the achievement of various factors that will see a runner or walker take the starting line in the best possible form. Everyday eating patterns must supply fuel and nutrients needed to optimize their performance during training sessions and to recover quickly afterwards. Carbohydrate and fluid intake before, during, and after a workout may help to reduce fatigue and enhance performance. Recovery eating should also consider issues for adaptation and the immune system that may involve intakes of protein and some micronutrients. Race preparation strategies should include preparation of adequate fuel stores, including carbohydrate loading for prolonged events such as the marathon or 50-km walk. Fluid and carbohydrate intake during races lasting an hour or more should also be considered. Sports foods and supplements of value to distance athletes include sports drinks and liquid meal supplements to allow nutrition goals to be achieved when normal foods are not practical. While caffeine is an ergogenic aid of possible value to distance athletes, most other supplements are of minimal benefit.

Nutrition for throwers, jumpers, and combined events athletes.

Houtkooper L, Abbot JM, Nimmo M; International Association of Athletics Federations.

Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Arizona, PO Box 210038, Tucson, AZ, USA. houtkoop@u.arizona.edu

Throwers, jumpers, and combined events athletes require speed, strength, power, and a wide variety of technical skills to be successful in their events. Only a handful of studies have assessed the nutritional needs of such athletes. Because of this, recommendations for nutritional requirements to support and enhance training and competition performances for these athletes are made using research findings from sports and exercise protocols similar to their training and competitive events. The goals of the preparation cycle of nutrition periodization for these athletes include attaining desirable body weight, a high ratio of lean body mass to body height, and improving muscular power. Nutritional recommendations for training and competition periods include: (1) meeting energy needs; (2) timing consumption of adequate fluid and electrolyte intakes before, during, and after exercise to promote adequate hydration; (3) timing consumption of carbohydrate intake to provide adequate fuel for energy demands and to spare protein for muscle repair, growth, and maintenance; (4) timing consumption of adequate protein intake to meet protein synthesis and turnover needs; and (5) consuming effective nutritional and dietary supplements. Translating these nutrient and dietary recommendations into guidelines these athletes can apply during training and competition is important for enhancing performance.

The use of dietary supplements by athletes.

Maughan RJ, Depiesse F, Geyer H; International Association of Athletics Federations.

School of Sport and Exercise Sciences, Loughborough University, Loughborough, LE11 3TU, UK. r.maughan@lboro.ac.uk

Many athletes use dietary supplements as part of their regular training or competition routine, including about 85% of elite track and field athletes. Supplements commonly used include vitamins, minerals, protein, creatine, and various "ergogenic" compounds. These supplements are often used without a full understanding or evaluation of the potential benefits and risks associated with their use, and without consultation with a sports nutrition professional. A few supplements may be helpful to athletes in specific circumstances, especially where food intake or food choice is restricted. Vitamin and mineral supplements should be used only when a food-based solution is not available. Sports drinks, energy bars, and protein-carbohydrate shakes may all be useful and convenient at specific times. There are well-documented roles for creatine, caffeine, and alkalinizing agents in enhancing performance in high-intensity exercise, although much of the evidence does not relate to specific athletic events. There are potential costs associated with all dietary supplements, including the risk of a positive doping result as a consequence of the presence of prohibited substances that are not declared on the label.

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